Why do we need warnings? What are the basic ingredients of warnings? What are the different types of warnings? Warnings as part of the disaster risk reduction (DRR) cycle; The importance of interactions and understanding of the users, their volurnabilities, the information needed for desicion making, the lead time needed, the importance of building trust/credebility ; Case studies - Hurricane Katrina, European HeatWave 2003
The literature on forecasting and early warning systems is extensive. This section sets out a few general principles of good practice and discusses some of the most important issues in making warnings effective. The aim of early warning systems (EWS) is to enable individuals and communities threatened by hazards to act effectively and in sufficient time to reduce the likelihood of death, injury and damage to property and the environment. EWS vary greatly in size, structure, management and technological sophistication, according to the extent of their coverage, the nature of the hazard(s) and the human and material resources available. But they have many features and issues in common.